The main purpose of Artificial Intelligence is to allow machines to function like humans. Hence, AI is classified based on the degree to which it can mimic human behavior. The ability of AI to replicate the human brain can be classified into two types. The “Based on Functionality” classification categorizes AI according to its similarity to human minds and the ability to think and feel like humans. Second, in the technology sector, AI is classified based on its capabilities relative to human intelligence. Taking a closer look at each type will enable us to understand them better.
Artificial Intelligence Types
Based on functionality & capabilities, AI can be divided into two types:
AI Type-1: The Capabilities-Based AI Type
- Weak AI or Narrow AI
A narrow AI performs a dedicated task with intelligence. Narrow AI is the most commonly available AI today. As narrow AI can only perform one specific task, it cannot perform beyond its field or limitations. Therefore, it is also called weak AI. Narrow AI can fail unexpectedly if it is overridden. Despite the machines’ appearance of intelligence, weak AI operates within narrow constraints and limitations. Narrow artificial intelligence cannot replicate human intelligence. A limited set of contexts and factors are used to simulate human behavior. By using NLP, narrow AI understands text and speech in natural language. A personalized approach is taken to communicating with humans.
Siri is an example of narrow artificial intelligence, but it only performs a limited set of functions. A Narrow AI system like IBM’s Watson is also classified as such because it combines a machine learning approach and natural language processing in an Expert system.
- General AI
General AI is a type of intelligence that could perform any intellectual task with efficiency like a human. AI is intended to make systems that are smarter and think like humans. No system can perform any task as well as a human. AGI requires programming a machine with all cognitive abilities. Experiential learning must be taken to the next level by machines, besides improving efficiency in a specific task. It is also important to apply knowledge in a broader range of situations.
Theory of mind AI is the basis for strong AI. A capability to anticipate other intelligent entities’ thoughts, beliefs, and emotions. A true understanding of humans is the goal, not simulation or replication. The development of general AI machines is now a worldwide focus for researchers. A generalized AI system is still being researched, and it will take a long time to develop.
- Super AI
In general, super AI refers to a level of intelligent systems that can exceed human intelligence. Cognitive properties enable it to perform any task better than humans. Generally speaking, it’s a result of artificial intelligence. A strong AI can think, reason, discern, plan, learn, and communicate independently.
ASI would theoretically surpass humans in various fields, including math, sports, science, medicine, art, hobbies, and emotional connections. Artificial Intelligence remains a theoretical concept. There is still a long way to go before such systems are developed in reality.
AI Type-2: Functionality-Based AI Type
- Reactive Machine
Artificial Intelligence is the simplest and oldest type. Humans are capable of reacting to various stimuli in different ways. AI in this type lacks memory power. Consequently, they cannot use previously gained information to improve their performance. As a result, such AIs cannot train themselves like they do in the modern world.
Example: IBM’s supercomputer that plays chess is Deep Blue. The team defeated Garry Kasparov in the late 1990s. A computer program known as Deep Blue is capable of identifying different pieces on a chessboard and how they move. Players and opponents can identify all legal moves. Depending on the option, it chooses the best course of action. Due to the lack of memory, it cannot learn from its past moves.
- Limited Theory
Reactive Machines and this type of AI both possess memory capabilities. To make better decisions based on the past information/experience they have gained. The majority of applications around us fall into this category. Artificial intelligence applications can store a large amount of training data in a reference model.
Example: Autonomous cars utilize limited memory technology. GPS location data, nearby car speed data, size/nature of obstructions, and hundreds of other kinds of data.
- Theory of Mind
Theory of Mind is an advanced form of AI that has little or no impact on everyday life. Research labs usually contain these types of AI in the “Work in Progress” stage. A developed AI can understand human minds well, ranging from needs, preferences, etc. Human minds and their whims will allow AI to adjust its response.
An example of a robot used in his research was a prototype that could walk down a corridor with robots approaching from opposite directions. The AI can turn right or left by anticipating other robots’ movements. As a precaution against collisions with incoming robots. A robot’s actions are determined by its “common sense” of its surroundings.
- Self-Aware AI
AI has reached its final stage. Currently, only science fiction movies depict its existence. AI of this kind can perceive, understand, and evoke human emotions. AI of this kind is a long way off, if not centuries away. AI skeptics like Elon Musk are concerned about this type of AI. Self-preservation may be triggered once AI becomes self-aware. The organization could consider humanity a threat and pursue efforts to end humankind directly or indirectly.
In this blog, we discussed Artificial Intelligence, its functions, and capabilities. AI refers to computers that can perform tasks normally handled by humans. There are many techniques in artificial intelligence. However, advances in machine learning and deep learning have transformed virtually every sector of the IT industry. Since its origin, scientists and the public have explored artificial intelligence. Robots have developed so far that humans cannot keep up with their development and are continually redesigned.
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